Beyond Substitution: The SAMR Model

Think technology and education end with Word documents and Google Apps?

Think again.

SAMR, a model designed to help educators integrate technology into teaching and learning , was developed by Dr. Ruben Puentedura.  The model aims to enable teachers to design, develop, and integrate digital learning experiences that utilize technology to transform learning experiences to lead to high levels of  achievement for students.

Double click the image below to get a full size view of the image.


Model of Technology Integration

Substitute, Augmentation, Modification, Redefinition SAMR - Models for Enhancng Technology Integration 1

The four levels of the SAMR model:

1. Substitution: the computer stands in for another technological tool without a significant change in the tool’s function.

2. Augmentation: the computer replaces another technological tool, with significant functionality increase.

3. Modification: the computer enables the redesign of significant portions of a task.

4. Redefinition: the computer allows for the creation of new tasks that would otherwise be inconceivable without the technology.

Find more information about SAMR in Puentedura’s podcasts at  iTunes U.



  1. Jim McCarthy

    I am teaching a course on using educational technology to improve literacy. As part of the class, my students and I are developing a wiki. I would like to reproduce the image that you present here in that Wiki. May I have your permission to do so? If so, how should I sight your work?

    • hoganl

      Jim, you may use the image. Thank you so much for asking. Where are you teaching the course on educational technology improving literacy. I am currently working with a middle school and high school learning to use technology for effective vocabulary instruction.

      • Jim McCarthy

        It is a Masters course for in-service teachers at St. Joseph’s College in Connecticut. I have 10 students in this class. Most of them work with very young chilren and kids with special needs. It is my first time back in the classroom (I’m an adjunct) in almost 20 years and I’m having a lot of fun!

  2. Jeanne

    Hi just wondering in your model u implied that there should be a change in the ICT tool used when you move to modification and Above. Is the change in ICT tool key or is it the ability to use ICT to modify/ redefine existing task? E.g a simple ICT tool like word or google can be used at the various levels. If we just individually type in our writing in word/google, I agree this is just substitution. However, if the same tool allows us to have feedback from our peers or experts, and enables us to make changes and several drafts, wouldn’t
    This constitute redefinition? ESP when compared to the typical classroom where writing is usually seen as an individual and one off activity.

    • hoganl


      The change in the ICT tool is not critical to moving toward modification or redefinition. You are correct it is really about using an ICT tool to modify and / or define an existing task or a task you have never been able to undertake before. I would say your example of using a word processing to allow students to get feedback from peers or expects is moving toward modification if in the past the typical classroom setting has viewed writing as an individual and one off activity. Really pushing into modification to me would be allowing students to use word processing throughout the entire writing process, obtaining feedback for revision, using online thesaurus for alternative word choices, and then publishing the final draft online to gain feedback from a real, authentic audience. For example in a current events class, having students reply to letters to the editor or op ed pieces.

  3. Hi I am giving a keynote on e-Books to school librarians next week and would like to use your image as I am referring to the SAMR model in relation to e-Books. I am a speaker and not receiving a fee

    regards Michael

    • hoganl

      Hi Michael, Thank you for asking to use the SAMR image. Please feel free to use the image of the SAMR model in your keynote. Good luck.


  4. Oh my goodness! Awesome article dude! Many thanks, However I am experiencing problems with your RSS.
    I don’t know the reason why I cannot subscribe to it. Is there anyone else getting similar RSS problems? Anyone who knows the solution can you kindly respond? Thanks!!

  5. Lorraine

    Hi I am doing a conference in Huddesfeild University may I use your model thank you I think it is a marvelous piece of work from Lorraine

    • hoganl

      Feel free to use the model. I can not really take credit for the model. I made the model based on Dr. Ruben Puentedura’s SAMR model.


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